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NOT CRAZY: YOU MAY NOT BE MENTALLY ILL
Charles Whitfield’s new book NOT CRAZY is a landmark publication that expands concepts of posttraumatic stress disorder to include illnesses that are misdiagnosed as serious mental disorders, and then treated with powerful mind altering drugs that act by deadening the brain.
Practically anyone can recognize and understand PTSD from war, but what Dr. Whitfield does, so masterfully, is expand the PTSD mechanism to include more subtle childhood traumas and recognize their profound effects later in life.
This deeper understanding is lacking in the field of psychiatry today. He also identifies Drug Stress Trauma Syndrome (DSTS), caused by wrong diagnosis and misapplication of high doses of powerful mind and brain changing drugs that can result in chemical lobotomies – and he reveals how this trend is increasing through greed, political ambition and absence of good science.
Clancy D McKenzie, MD, Author, (along with Lance S. Wright, MD )
Delayed Posttraumatic Stress Disorders from Infancy
Psychiatry today is not as advertised, as bestselling author Charles Whitfield describes in this scientifically accurate new book. It exposes the pseudo science behind modern biological psychiatry that misdiagnoses people who have painful emotional, psychological and behavioral symptoms as being “mentally ill” and then mistreats them with toxic psychiatric drugs that don’t work well or make them worse. Dr Whitfield blows the whistle on and names the culprits that promote bio-psychiatry for profit and control and explains why and how to avoid their mind- and body- manipulations. Most of these culprits are the “Bigs,” which include Big Pharma, Big Government, Big Insurance, Big Academia and Big Professional groups (as the American Psychiatric Association, American Medical Association and the National Alliance on Mental Illness). Each of the Bigs promotes and supports the misdiagnosis and mistreatment of what they call “mental illness,” which Dr. Whitfield documents is instead the painful effects of repeated childhood and later trauma, which he explains in some detail. Throughout he describes how this major problem has developed and how to heal from it.
DRUG- INDUCED DEMENTIA A PERFECT CRIME
Dr. Grace E. Jackson’s latest textbook is undoubtedly the most authoritative source book of its kind. It is well written, reader friendly, and lists 88 pages of scholarly references. Dr. Jackson is a brilliant and critical thinker. Her compassion was stirred for her prison inmates when she saw them given psychiatric medications that caused great harm. It was out of love and compassion, for those who unknowingly were being injured, that she put her heart and soul into her monumental effort to expose the brain damage and other harm caused by medications promoted on a grand scale to captive populations, including inmates, elderly, military and now even little children, perhaps for the rest of their lives.
Drug-Induced DEMENTIA — a perfect crime is a timely resource which reveals why and how medical treatments themselves, namely the psychopharmaceuticals–which cause psychopharmacomania–are a substantial cause of brain degeneration and premature death. A first-of-its-kind resource for patients and clinicians, the book integrates research findings from epidemiology (observational studies of patients in the “real world”), basic biology (animal experiments), and clinical science (neuroimaging and autopsy studies) in order to demonstrate the dementing and deadly effects of psychiatric drugs. It’s a continuation of her earlier book Rethinking Psychiatric Drugs: A Guide for Informed Consent, which underscored the urgent need for societies and health care systems to recognize the unnecessary harmfulness of psychiatric medications, and to protect the rights of those who desire drug-free care Drug-Induced DEMENTIA — a perfect crime goes beyond this to present a methodical analysis of scientific evidence which confirms psychopharmaceuticals cause brain damage and premature death. Hopefully, it will improve quality and integrity of health care, and protect patients from unwarranted bodily harm – particularly that which occurs in the form of misinformed, fraudulent, and/or coercive (involuntary) medical care.
ANATOMY OF AN EPIDEMIC
When Robert Whitaker (Mad in America, 2002) learned that between 1987 and 2007 the number of Americans disabled due to mental illness more than doubled despite a whopping $40 billion annual psychotropic drug tab, it gave him pause. Given their widespread use—greater than even that of cholesterol-lowering drugs—he had believed that psychopharmaceuticals were magic bullets, knocking mental illness out of the game, returning formerly disabled people to the ranks of productive citizens. But the deeper he probed into clinical studies in prestigious scientific journals, some dating back more than 50 years, the more he noticed a shocking anomaly. Psychiatric drugs have repeatedly been shown to worsen mental illness, to say nothing of the risks of liver damage, weight gain, elevated cholesterol and blood sugar, and reduced cognitive function they entail. The reality, he says, is that, because no one knows what causes mental illness, there’s no cure or palliation to be found in these pills. What with the conclusions Whitaker draws from his assembled literature and the accusations he levels at those who consciously deceive consumers eager for magical cures, his book will either blow the lid off a multibillion-dollar industry causing Psychopharmacomania or cause him to be labeled a crackpot and, perhaps, medicated into obscurity. At the very least, it should prod those who take the drugs to question those who prescribe them. –Donna Chavez
THE EMPEROR’S NEW DRUGS
When Irving Kirsch, Ph.D began a new research project on antidepressants and placebos (a “meta-analysis” of a large number of published studies), practicing psychotherapist and research psychologist Kirsch (How Expectancies Shape Experience) was surprised to uncover evidence that inadequate supervision by the FDA had allowed pharmaceutical companies to cherry-pick test results for publication and submission to the feds, suppressing unwanted outcomes; further, apparent evidence of active drugs’ effectiveness when compared to placebos could often be attributed to patients correctly guessing which group they were in based on the side effects (or the lack thereof) they had come to expect in conjunction with anti-depressants. When his results were published in early 2008, Kirsch was surprised to find himself and his research the subject of front page newspaper stories, TV and radio coverage, and a vigorous debate in the medical community that continues to this day. Writing with a broad audience in mind, Kirsch expands on this important topic in a lively style with clear, cogent explanations of the science involved, and many examples of the differences between solid and flawed research. The result is a fascinating book about the effects of Psychopharmacomania with broad implications for science policy.
Daniel Carlat, MD exposes deeply disturbing problems plaguing his profession, (Psychopharmacomania) revealing the ways it has abandoned its essential purpose: to understand the mind, so that psychiatrists can heal mental illness and not just treat symptoms. As he did in his hard-hitting and widely read New York Times Magazine article “Dr. Drug Rep,” and as he continues to do in his popular watchdog newsletter, The Carlat Psychiatry Report, he writes with bracing honesty about how psychiatry has so largely forsaken the practice of talk therapy for the seductive—and more lucrative—practice of simply prescribing drugs, with a host of deeply troubling consequences. Psychiatrists have settled for treating symptoms rather than causes, embracing the apparent medical rigor of DSM diagnoses and prescription in place of learning the more challenging craft of therapeutic counseling, gaining only limited understanding of their patients’ lives. Talk therapy takes time, whereas the fifteen-minute “med check” allows for more patients and more insurance company reimbursement. Yet DSM diagnoses, he shows, are premised on a good deal less science than we would think.
Writing from an insider’s perspective, with refreshing forthrightness about his own daily struggles as a practitioner, Dr. Carlat shares a wealth of stories from his own practice and those of others that demonstrate the glaring shortcomings of the standard fifteen-minute patient visit. He also reveals the dangers of rampant diagnoses of bipolar disorder, ADHD, and other “popular” psychiatric disorders, and exposes the risks of the cocktails of medications so many patients are put on. Especially disturbing are the terrible consequences of overprescription of drugs to children of ever younger ages. Taking us on a tour of the world of pharmaceutical marketing, he also reveals the inner workings of collusion between psychiatrists and drug companies.
THE MYTH OF THE CHEMICAL CURE
Joanna Moncrieff’s controversial book overturns the claim that psychiatric drugs work by correcting chemical imbalance, and analyzes the professional, commercial and political vested interests that have shaped this view. It provides a comprehensive critique of research on drugs including antidepressants, antipsychotics and mood stabilizers.
‘This book is critically important and should be essential reading for all psychiatrists, politicians, service providers, and user groups. Why?
Because Joanna Moncrieff’s central tenet is right, and the implications for service delivery are profound. The book is closely argued and well referenced. Even if you disagree with some of its overall premises, it is not legitimate to dismiss it. I urge you to read it if only as a prompt to a critical evaluation of the status quo, never a bad thing, and almost always an illuminating exercise.’
– Sarah Yates, Cambridge, UK
‘This is a sober and thoughtful book. I found it very engaging and worth the effort to be better informed about a subject that affects many of our clients and impinges on our professional lives as therapists.’ – Existential Analysis (Society for Existential Analysis)
‘…Joanna Moncrieff, a practising psychiatrist and academic, has produced a devastating critique of the use of psychiatric drugs…This courageous book has the potential to revolutionise psychiatric practice and the care of people with many forms of mental distress. Many in the therapy professions will, I am sure, celebrate its message.’ – Rachel Freeth, Therapy Today
BABIES NEED MOTHERS:
HOW MOTHERS CAN PREVENT MENTAL ILLNESS
IN THEIR CHILDREN
This book tells how to avoid Psychopharmacomania, by preventing mental and emotional disorders at three levels:
1. Prevention of origin, very early in life,
2. Prevention of onset, later in life, and
3. Prevention of a recurrence after recovery has been achieved.
“How Mothers Can Prevent Mental Illness in their Children” is a rare example of careful conceptual reasoning about basic categories in medicine. Ultimately this is what is sorely needed in rational thinking about the mysteries of mental illness. This book is a fascinating contribution and well worth reading, precisely because it upsets the applecart. I recommend it to anyone who wants to get beyond rigid categorization in psychiatry and look at enduring problems of the mind in new ways.
Raymond Moody, MD, Psy.D, PhD Philosophy — Author, Life After Life
If you have young children or plan to, please read this book. Dr. McKenzie is a genius. He is highly respected in his field and has dedicated his life to helping people. Get to know him through his book, and seriously consider what he has to say. A perfect wedding or baby shower gift for someone you love.
DELAYED POSTTRAUMATIC STRESS DISORDERS
FROM INFANCY: THE TWO TRAUMA MECHANISM
This college textbook is used in universities across the country, and it is valuable for its unique findings that allow for prevention of mental and emotional disorders, for the first time. Knowledge of its contents can keep members of one’s family from developing serious mental or emotional disorders – and resultant psychopharmacomania!
Doctors McKenzie and Wright boldly strike out in a new direction, based on accidental findings followed by research data on 6000 patients in the Finnish database and the 2,700 in the Danish cohort on schizophrenia.
The title says it all: This is delayed PTSD from infancy. More terrifying than war trauma to a soldier is separation from mother to a baby, because for as long as mammals have populated the earth, separation from mother has meant death! Then years or decades later, instead of a loud noise precipitating a flashback, it is a separation from some other “most important person” that precipitates the initial step back in time.
The Casey Anthony murder case, is a prime example. The “lies” she told should have been a signal to everyone as to her illness. They matched only the behavior of a 1½ to 2 year old toddler, sitting in the middle of the floor, face covered with chocolate and surrounded by candy wrappers, saying: “I didn’t eat the candy!” While the original trauma is not known, it usually is an unsuspected separation trauma, such as birth of a sibling. The second trauma was separation from her fiancée, causing a partial return to the earlier mind/brain/reality.
Certainly no one would execute a 1½ to 2 year old child, but what about an adult who has shifted partially to the mind/brain/reality of the young toddler and who was operating under diminished capacity? Would you kill that person? McKenzie and Wright wouldn’t. They would have compassion and try to help the family understand and overcome their painful ordeal.
CASEY ANTHONY – WHAT REALLY HAPPENED TO CAYLEE?
— AND WHY TRUTH MATTERS
As a special tribute to Charles Whitfield MD, for his significant exposure of the causes of Psychopharmacomania, we feature his latest insights into the intrigue and mysteries of the mind as they intertwine with events surrounding the most reported criminal trial of the twenty-first Century. This exposé will be hard to surpass.
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CASEY ANTHONY – What Really Happened To Caylee? — And Why Truth Matters
A fascinating account of real life mystery and intrigue as viewed though a scientific lens by a team of true professionals. Wendy Murphy takes complex information and presents it in an easy-to-understand and compelling manner.
Dr. Whitfield explores child abuse and its many components, and offers a unique approach to healing and recovery. Barbara Whitfield’s contribution is invaluable.
Clancy D. McKenzie, MD
Author, Babies Need Mothers
This is a must-read for anyone who believes in justice for children. The authors go below the surface to explore what really happened to Caylee. With a century of combined experience in child advocacy law, psychiatry, psychology, grief counseling and natural spirituality, the authors give us a compelling analysis of a trial that captured a nation. Filled with facts that were never discussed at trial, this new book raises important questions about evidence the jurors never heard, and that has been hidden from the public. In the final chapters, we learn about child abuse and neglect, and how we can better protect all children from harm. The book includes sections on grief counseling and near-death studies and offers insights about what we can do right now to find meaning in the death of Caylee Anthony. We dedicate this book to all children who have been and are being abused and neglected in this country and the world. This includes the five children who die from abuse and neglect daily in this country. We dedicate this book to trauma survivors of all ages who can identify with any of the people involved in this tragic story. We dedicate this book to all attorneys, advocates and clinicians who work to assist these trauma survivors. Most of all, we dedicate this book to you, the reader, in the hope that you believe, as we do, that truth matters.
By: Wendy Murphy, JD, with Charles L. Whitfield, MD, and Barbara H. Whitfield, RT
BRAIN DISABLING TREATMENTS IN PSYCHIATRY
FROM THE AUTHOR OF TOXIC PSYCHIATRY AND TALKING
BACK TO PROZAC
“Peter Breggin is the conscience of American psychiatry. Once more he updates us on the real evidence with respect to the safety and effectiveness of specific psychiatric medications and ECT. This information is needed by all mental health professionals, as well as patients and families.” – Bertram Karon, Ph.D., Professor of Psychology, Michigan State University, Author of The Psychotherapy of Schizophrenia
“Nowhere does false medical thinking do more harm than in the modern psychiatric argument that mental illness is easily diagnosed and then cured by a side-effect free drug. Nowhere is the correct psychiatric thinking more evident than in the books by Peter Breggin.” – William Glasser, MD, psychiatrist, author of Reality Therapy In Brain Disabling Treatments in Psychiatry, renowned psychiatrist Peter R. Breggin, MD, presents startling scientific research on the dangerous behavioral abnormalities and brain dysfunctions produced by the most widely used and newest psychiatric drugs such as Prozac, Paxil, Zoloft, Cymbalta, Effexor, Xanax, Ativan, Ritalin, Adderall, Concerta, Strattera, Risperdal, Zyprexa, Geodon, Abilify, lithium and Depakote.
PSYCHED OUT: HOW PSYCHIATRY SELLS MENTAL ILLNESS
AND PUSHES PILLS THAT KILL
Few would argue that people suffer from mental illness, mental breakdowns, depression or any number of adjectives that describe behaviors that adversely, even severely, affect people’s lives. In law it is said that “it doesn’t matter what one believes, only what one can prove.” The same can be said for psychiatric diagnosing. It matters little what anyone in the medical/psychiatric community “believe” is the cause(s) of mental illness. The question that has not been answered is whether tens of millions of Americans who have been diagnosed with any one or number of psychiatric mental disorders suffer from a mental “disease” – an objective, confirmable abnormality of the brain. What is known is that neither the American Psychiatric Association nor the National Institute of Mental Health, nor any other medical organization, is capable today of making available scientific evidence to prove that any psychiatric disorder is an objective, confirmable abnormality of the brain. This mantra is repeated throughout the book because it is the point of the book. That people are suffering isn’t in question. Whether they actually suffer from a psychiatric disorder that is a known objective, confirmable abnormality of the brain is in question because selling mental disorders as “disease,” such as the theoretical chemical imbalance, has become the norm in the medical/psycho pharmaceutical Community and it is blatantly false. The People, if given the truth, can take it. The decision to accept the psychiatric diagnosis and seek treatment with psychiatric mind-altering drugs may be no different, but at least the decision will be based on all the truth, the objective confirmable scientific evidence, not theories, wishful thinking, deceptive advertising and misleading advocacy group, pharmaceutical company and government-sponsored information campaigns.
MAD IN AMERICA: BAD SCIENCE, BAD MEDICINE, AND THE
ENDURING MISTREATMENT OF THE MENTALLY ILL
Tooth removal. Bloodletting. Spinning. Ice-water baths. Electroshock therapy. These are only a few of the horrifying treatments for mental illness readers encounter in this accessible history of Western attitudes toward insanity. Whitaker, a medical writer and Pulitzer Prize finalist, argues that mental asylums in the U.S. have been run largely as “places of confinement facilities that served to segregate the misfits from society rather than as hospitals that provided medical care.” His evidence is at times frightening, especially when he compares U.S. physicians’ treatments of the mentally ill to medical experiments and sterilizations in Nazi Germany. Eugenicist attitudes, Whitaker argues, profoundly shaped American medicine in the first half of the 20th century, resulting in forced sterilization and other cruel treatments. Between 1907 and 1927, roughly 8,000 eugenic sterilizations were performed, while 10,000 mentally ill Americans were lobotomized in the years 1950 and 1951 alone. As late as 1933, there were no states in which insane people could legally get married. Though it covers some of the same territory as Sander Gilman’s Seeing the Insane and Elaine Showalter’s The Female Malady, Whitaker’s richer, more detailed book will appeal to those interested in medical history, as well as anyone fascinated by Western culture’s obsessive need to define and subdue the mentally ill.
MANUFACTURING DEPRESSION: THE SECRET HISTORY OF
A MODERN DISEASE
Science writer and psychotherapist Greenberg has suffered from bouts of depression himself, which eminently qualifies him to literately probe and analyze that pervasive modern affliction. Instead of dry polemics, he offers a witty and often very personal investigation into the roles doctors, drug companies, and patients themselves have played in casting depression as “the common cold” of American mental illness. In chapters entitled “Making Depression Safe for Democracy,” “Mad Men on Drugs,” “The Magnificence of Normal,” and so forth, Greenberg covers a wide swath of the history of melancholy, from Freud to shock therapy to the more recent discovery of such neurotransmitters as serotonin. He offers a measured dose of philosophy in contemplating whether unhappiness should be regarded as a disease or instead as an essential part of being human. Ultimately, his book is a sobering critique of the marketing wizards who have overhyped the dubious benefits of antidepressants and of an American public all too eager for quick fixes to life’s inevitable challenges and disappointments. – Carl Hays
THE TRUTH ABOUT MENTAL ILLNESS: CHOICES FOR
An invaluable reference book from the premiere authority on, and international bestselling author of, addiction and mental health issues. Dr. Whitfield provides clinicians, patients and their families with a most crucial guide to mental illness, including information on new treatment options. This unique approach also answers questions on the role unresolved trauma plays in mental illness.
According the National Institutes of Mental Health, one in five American adults suffers from some kind of mental disorder. The Truth About Mental Illness uncovers the myths and realities of disorders such as, post-traumatic stress, ADD, anxiety, eating disorders, drug addiction, schizophrenia and personality disorders. Whitfield offers cutting-edge research into their causes; why the real causes are often overlooked; how clinicians and patients can avoid misdiagnosis and how to prevent dangerous drug interactions. He also offers important non-medicated treatment options, which can be used alone or as an adjunct to prescription treatment.
About The Author
Charles L. Whitfield, MD, is a physician, psychotherapist, and internationally recognized expert on mental illness, behavioral problems, and recovery. He has been on the faculty of the Rutgers University Summer Institute of Alcohol and Drug Studies since 1978, and in private practice of medicine and psychotherapy since 1976. Dr. Whitfield has been voted by his peers as one of the Best Doctors in America every year since 1994. He lives in Atlanta, GA.
PROZAC: PANACEA OR PANDORA?
THE REST OF THE STORY ON THE NEW CLASS OF SSRI’S
ANTIDEPRESSANTS PROZAC, ZOLOFT, PAXIL, LOVAN,
LUVOX & MORE
I was stunned at the amount of research Dr. Tracy has done on this subject. Few researchers go to as much trouble aggressively gathering information on the adverse reactions of Prozac, Zoloft and other SSRIs I had reactions to this class of drugs and I did exhaustive research, coming up with only bits and pieces of information trying to find out exactly what happened to me. All the doctors that I visited were ignorant to what was happening to me, but after reading the book and understanding exactly what happened, why it happened and knowing that I wasn’t alone with these “new” symptoms (She has personally interviewed hundreds, if not thousands of patients) I came to a realization that it was the drugs that caused those problems. She truly knows more about the subject of the effects of SSRIs on the human mind and body than any other doctor or researcher that I know of. I am looking forward to reading her next book. I know she is boldly continuing her research and has a book in the works.
Overcoming the Dangers of Prozac, Zoloft, Paxil, and
Other Antidepressants with Safe, Effective Alternatives.
It seems like it was just yesterday that Prozac was a miracle pill, medication that could not only make sick people well, but “better than well. ”By the end of the 1990s, Prozac and similar drugs–Paxil, Zoloft, and others–were being prescribed for everything from depression to anxiety to drug addiction to ADD. About 70 percent of prescriptions for these antidepressants were being written by family physicians, rather than psychiatrists.
Dr. Joseph Glenmullen, a psychiatrist who has a private practice and also works for Harvard University Health Services, sees this antidepressant mania as dangerous, even reckless. He notes that these drugs can have severe side effects, including uncontrollable facial and body tics, which could be signs of severe and permanent brain damage. About 50 percent of patients suffer often-debilitating withdrawal symptoms from them, and about 60 percent end up with sexual dysfunction. And Prozac may make a small number of people homicidal or suicidal, or both.
But there are alternatives: in Germany, for example, St. John’s wort outsells Prozac 25 to 1, showing that doctors and patients there understand that the herbal remedy works as well as the synthetic ones for mild to moderate depression. [Editor’s note: St. John’s wort has been shown to interfere with the actions of the transplant rejection drug cyclosporin and the AIDS drug indinivir.] And diet, exercise, 12-step programs, and good old-fashioned psychotherapy can work well, too. Even for severe depression requiring medication, Dr. Glenmullen shows how the drugs can be used with other treatments and then discontinued after a year or less. Moreover, Prozac Backlash discusses exactly what depression is and isn’t; Dr. Glenmullen reviews hundreds of scientific studies, and discusses numerous case studies from his practice and others. Because of that detail, medical professionals may be this book’s most likely readers, but anyone who has been on an antidepressant, or is close to someone who is, will also want to give Prozac Backlash a careful read. The brain you save could be your own. – Lou Schuler
YOUR DRUG MAY BE YOUR PROBLEM:
HOW AND WHY TO STOP TAKING PSYCHIATRIC
Psychiatric drugs are prescribed to more than 20 million Americans. This book aims to convince us to stop taking these drugs, and to show us how to do it safely. The authors contend that after 15 minutes with a physician or psychiatrist, Americans are prescribed medications that we may take for years or a lifetime, which can do more harm than good.
We’re irritable, anxious, emotionally numbed, physically fatigued, and mentally dulled. Yet when we stop taking the drugs, we encounter a whole new set of problems and setbacks. The book lists the adverse medical reactions you may encounter, plus additional personal, psychological, and philosophical reasons for limiting or rejecting psychiatric drugs. About half the book covers withdrawing from your drug–how to do it carefully and slowly, what to expect, and how to get help – with specifics for certain drugs and a chapter on easing your child off them as well.
If you suffer from depression or another condition that warrants taking prescription drugs, you might refute the authors’ contention that “the degree to which we suffer indicates the degree to which we are alive. When we take drugs to ease our suffering, we stifle our psychological and spiritual life.” Certainly it would be lovely if we could “find a way to untangle that twisted energy and to redirect it more creatively,” but is this really possible in all cases? The authors blame our dependence on drugs and psychiatry on big pharmaceutical-company bucks, psychiatric organizations, and even government agencies. Certainly we are an overmedicated society–but is the answer to take everyone off drugs? This provocative book says yes, and it’s bound to be controversial.
RETHINKING PSYCHIATRIC DRUGS: A GUIDE FOR INFORMED
Are patients aware of the fact that pharmacological therapies stress the brain in ways which may prevent or postpone symptomatic and functional recovery? Rethinking Psychiatric Drugs: A Guide for Informed Consent is a critical appraisal of the medications which an estimated 20% of Americans consume on a regular (and sometimes involuntary) basis. It is the philosophically, epidemiologically, and scientifically supported revelation of how and why psychiatry’s drug therapies have contributed to a standard of care which frequently does more to harm than to cure. Extensively researched and documented.
About The Author
Grace Jackson, MD is a board certified psychiatrist who graduated summa cum laude from California Lutheran University with a Bachelor of Arts in Political Science and a Bachelor of Science in Biology, as well as a Masters Degree in Public Administration. She earned her Medical Degree from the University of Colorado Health Sciences Center in 1996 and completed her internship and residency while in the U. S. Navy. Following her service as a staff psychiatrist at Bethesda Naval Hospital, she worked in the North Carolina prison system. Dr. Jackson has lectured widely in the United States and Europe, and has testified as an expert witness in forced medication trials. Her interests include philosophy, history, politics, and law.